Annotated Bibliography (Inquiry 3)

Bergman, Paul. “Underage-drinking and MIP laws prohibit alcohol possession for those younger than 21.” Underage Drinking and Minor-in-Possession Laws,,

The article explains and gives out the basic information about the underage drinking law. As Professor Paul Bergman points out, “The legal drinking age in all states is 21. Under most states’ MIP laws, when a person under the legal drinking age is found to have been in possession of alcohol, punishment can take a number of forms.” Examples of people committing to breaking the laws are also given. Punishments from the laws are mentioned with different levels such as revocation of driver’s license, payment of fines, community service, etc (Bergman).

My assessment: This text can be helpful for my argument. Since I am arguing about the fact that whether or not the drinking age should be lowered from 21 to younger age. I want to provide the information of current regulation, so readers can have the basic knowledge of the law and how it works recently. This article demonstrates different punishments as well as different situations of people committing the crime.


Engs, Ruth C. “Why the drinking age should be lowered: An opinion based upon research.” 2014, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, IUScholarWorks Repository.

The opinion in the article is based on the research of Professor Ruth Engs. He believes that, “the drinking age should be lowered to about 18 or 19 and young adults allowed to drink in controlled environments such as restaurantsm taverns, pubs and official school and university functions.” The way young people see drinking is described as a “forbidden fruits.” (Engs) He points out the irresponsible behaviors of the youngsters as well as the failure in applying the law in real life. Therefore, he proposes an idea of lowering the age of drinking down to 18.

My assessment: This text can be helpful for my argument. This articles gives out the reasonable reasons with data and number to strongly support for the opinion of the author, making it easier for my argument because we have the same opinion, and the way Engs interprets and explains his idea is logical and strong.


Griggs, Brandon. “Should the U.S. Lower Its Drinking Age?” 4 Jan 2015, CNN. Cable News Network.

The news demonstrates different opinions towards the issue of young people drinking. For example, Marjana Martinic, deputy president of the International Center for Alcohol Policies or ICAP believes that, “18 is viewed (by most countries) pretty much as a reasonable age limit.” However, Heath, an author who focuses on the field of cultural behaviors towards alcohol, states that, “in general, the younger people start to drink the safer they are.” Different voices with different perspectives are expressed on the news about the topic, which is what the minimum age of drinking in US should be.

My assessments: This news points out different viewpoints towards the problem that I am arguing. This helps me because I need different opinions from different people; from that, I can find out the limits of the opposite opinion to strengthen my idea. Moreover, the news seems to have penchant for supporting the lowering minimum age since it gives out more positive information about it like many other countries starts with lower ages. This point helps me a lot to support my opinion.

Nugent, Georgia. “The New York Times Company.” 10 Feb 2015, The New York Times. The New York Times.

The article is the voice president of Kenyon College, Nugent Georgia, stating her experience after the minimum of underage drinking was raised from 18 to 21.Georgia expressed that, “by outlawing moderate use of alcohol in appropriate social contexts and with adult oversight, we have driven more drinking underground.” The regulation is described as a failure of the government since “alcohol use has become more, not less, dangerous.” (Georgia)

My assessment: this text is helpful because the author as the same viewpoint as mine. I can use the experiences she demonstrated in her article as a strong support for my essay. Since Georgia is president emerita of Kenyon College and senior fellow of the Council of Independent Colleges, her voice is more respected and valuable. This also helps my argument as an ethos strategy. I would use the details in the articles as a way to demonstrate how raising the age negatively affects the society, and the consequences of it.



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